Majocchi's granuloma: current perspectives
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Majocchi's granuloma (MG) is a rare fungal infection of the dermis that is mainly caused by dermatophytes (in >= 95% of cases); the most frequently identified cause is anthropophilic Trichophyton rubrum. In the rest of the cases, the causes are non-dermatophytic fungi such as Aspergillus species. This review aimed to provide information about the current perspectives on MG regarding its clinical characteristics, predisposing factors, laboratory diagnosis, and treatment strategies. Although the lower extremities were reported to be the most common site of infection, facial involvement has been predominant in the past 5 years. Our literature research showed that the most common predisposing factor (55%) is the use of topical steroid creams without potassium hydroxide examination during treatment of erythematous squamous dermatoses. A reliable diagnosis of MG is based on histopathological examination, including fungal culture and molecular analyses. MG should be treated not only with topical agents but also with systemic antifungal agents that are continued until the lesions are completely resolved. In systemic treatment, the most preferred drug is terbinafine, because of its efficacy, side effects, and safety.