A Patient with Suspected Myocarditis Associated with Legionnaires' Disease: A Case Report and Review of the Literature
Eldem, Halil Olcay
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Legionnaires' disease (LD) is a systemic infectious disease caused by Legionella species. It mainly presents with lung involvement. Herein, we present a case with suspected myocarditis associated with LD and review of the relevant literature. An 81-year-old male tourist patient with high fever, cough, imbalance while walking, and confusion presented to the emergency department. The patient was diagnosed with LD based on increased density in the left lower zone on chest x-ray and a positive Legionella urine antigen test. He was administered a combination of claritromycin and levofloxacine on the day of admission. The diagnosis of acute myocarditis was made after worsening of the cardiac functions, ST elevation and troponin I positivity. The patient's symptoms regressed with antibiotic therapy and the patient was transferred to his home country by ambulance plane ten days after admission. A search of PubMed and Web of Science using the keywords "Legionella and myocarditis" revealed 15 case reports, nine of which were in English and were reviewed. There were three female and six male patients with a mean age of 44 years (range: 32-56 years). Seven were diagnosed with LD by urine antigen testing, one by serological testing and culture, and one by direct fluorescent-antibody staining and culture. Myocarditis was diagnosed by biopsy in two patients and by clinical and laboratory findings in the rest. Myocarditis without existing pneumonia was detected in one case. Electrocardiography abnormalities such as atrial flutter, atrioventricular block, torsade de pointes, sinus tachycardia, QT prolongation, ST elevation, and T wave inversion were detected in seven patients. Ventricle dysfunction on echocardiography and cardiac marker abnormality were detected in all but one of the patients (not tested in one patient). Antimicrobial monotherapy was chosen for three of the cases. One patient died due to myocarditis. In conclusion, myocarditis may develop rarely during the course of LD. Clinical suspicion is essential for the diagnosis. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment may be life-saving.