Hyperglycemia in Hospital: Diagnosis, Classification, Clinical Implications and Treatment
Bagir, Gulay Simsek
Ertorer, Melek Eda
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Hyperglycemia is a well-recognized risk factor for hospital-related complications, prolonged stay in the hospital and even mortality. The patients with in-hospital hyperglycemia may be categorized into three groups: i) Patients who have been diagnosed as having diabetes mellitus (DM) before admission; ii) Patients with newly diagnosed DM; and iii) Patients with stress hyperglycemia. The release of stress hormones, such as cortisol, catecholamines, glucagon, growth hormone and the related acceleration in gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, medications used for the treatment of primary diseases, such as glucocorticoids and vasopressors, are all claimed to be responsible for the development of in-hospital hyperglycemia. Glucose normalization with insulin therapy has been demonstrated to significantly decrease the morbidity and mortality in all the three groups. Therefore, it is recommended to monitor blood glucose levels for all hospitalized patients irrespective of the accompanying DM diagnosis.