The Effect of Pycnogenol (R) on Spatial Learning and Memory in Rats with Experimental Closed Head Injury
Kayipmaz, Afsin Emre
Deniz, Emine Ebru
Kalyoncu, Fatma Serra
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Aim: Trauma is a leading cause of emergency admissions. In this study, we investigated the effect of Pycnogenol (R) on spatial learning and memory (SLM) function in rats subjected to closed head injury. Methods: The study was a randomized, experimental study of four groups, each containing six rats. Pycnogenol (R) was administered to rats in two groups (group three and four) daily for five days starting on day one. A Barnes maze was used to test SLM in the rats in all four groups. Group 1: These rats did not have a closed head injury and were not administered Pycnogenol (R). Group 2: On the day three, closed head trauma was inflicted. Group 3: Pycnogenol (R) was administered to the rats. On day three, closed head trauma was inflicted. Group 4: Only Pycnogenol (R) was administered. At the end of day five, the brain tissue of the 24 rats was removed. Results: There were no significant differences between the groups in mean SLM durations on days one through five. No significant differences were detected in the pathological examination between of the four groups. Conclusion: Future studies that employ biochemical markers and free radical levels in the brain are needed.