Evaluation of the Relationship between Type II Diabetes Mellitus and the Prevalence of Apical Periodontitis in Root-Filled Teeth Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography: An Observational Cross-Sectional Study
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of apical periodontitis (AP) in patients with type II diabetes mellitus (DM) with either optimal glycemic control (OGC) or poor glycemic control (PGC) compared with nondiabetics using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Subjects and Methods: The periapical status of 75 teeth with adequate root canal treatment performed at least 1 year ago that could be visualized in the field of view of CBCT images of 43 DM patients (29 females, 14 males) was compared with a control group consisting of 162 teeth of 86 nondiabetics (56 females, 30 males). In addition, the DM group was divided into subgroups according to the patients' mean glycated hemoglobin level as either having OGC or PGC. The periapical status of the teeth was evaluated using the CBCT periapical index (CBCTPAI), and AP was diagnosed as a CBCTPAI >= 1. chi(2), Fisher's exact test, and independent-samples t tests were used for the statistical analysis, and p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Significant differences between the DM group and the control group were observed (p< 0.05) in terms of AP (the frequencies of both CBCTPAI >= 1 and CBCTPAI >= 3) and the frequency of cardiovascular disease, while there were no significant differences between the DM subgroups (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The prevalence of AP and severe bone destruction in periapical tissues was significantly higher in the DM patients compared with the nondiabetic patients.