The shear bond strength of repaired high-viscosity bulk-fill resin composites with different adhesive systems and resin composite types
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This study compared the effect of different adhesive systems and composite resins on the shear bond strength (SBS) of repaired high-viscosity bulk-fill composites(Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) and investigated failure modes. One hundred twenty cylindrical bulk-fill composite blocks (diameter 5 mm) were fabricated and thermocycled for 5000 cycles (5-55 degrees C). Specimens were roughened by diamond bur and divided into 8 groups (n = 15). Bulk-fill blocks were repaired with the same material or nanohybrid composite resin(Tetric EvoCeram Nanohybrid) (diameter 3 mm) using different adhesive systems:Tetric N-Bond Universal (TSE);37% phosphoric acid etching + Tetric N-Bond Universal (TER); Clearfil SE Bond (CSE); 37% phosphoric acid etching + AdperSingle Bond 2(SB). After repair procedures, all specimens were thermocycled again. The shear bond strengths were measured for all specimens using a universal test machine (crosshead speed of 1 mm/min). Cohesive strengths of bulk-fill composites were measured and described as control group. Debonded surfaces were observed with a stereomicroscope under 10x magnification to determine mode of failure. The SBS data of all groups was statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni correction test (p < 0.05). The specimens repaired with bulk-fill composites showed significantly higher SBS values (25.86 +/- 5.74, 27.05 +/- 4.93, 24.49 +/- 6.95MPa) than those with nanohybrid composites (20.41 +/- 3.70, 22.08 +/- 6.37, 18.74 +/- 6.40 MPa) for TER,CSE,SB, respectively (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in SBS according to the type of adhesive systems for both repair materials (p > 0.05). The predominant mode of failure was a mixed type in the restorative material except for the ones repaired with nanohybrid composites using AdperSingle Bond 2. High-viscosity bulk-fill composites could be successfully repaired with the same materials. SBS of repaired bulk-fill composites reached cohesive strength for all tested groups.