Treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by Acinetobacter: results of prospective and multicenter ID-IRI study
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Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to Acinetobacter spp. is one of the most common infections in the intensive care unit. Hence, we performed this prospective-observational multicenter study, and described the course and outcome of the disease. This study was performed in 24 centers between January 06, 2014, and December 02, 2016. The patients were evaluated at time of pneumonia diagnosis, when culture results were available, and at 72 h, at the 7th day, and finally at the 28th day of follow-up. Patients with coexistent infections were excluded and only those with a first VAP episode were enrolled. Logistic regression analysis was performed. A total of 177 patients were included; empiric antimicrobial therapy was appropriate (when the patient received at least one antibiotic that the infecting strain was ultimately shown to be susceptible) in only 69 (39%) patients. During the 28-day period, antibiotics were modified for side effects in 27 (15.2%) patients and renal dose adjustment was made in 38 (21.5%). Ultimately, 89 (50.3%) patients died. Predictors of mortality were creatinine level (OR, 1.84 (95% CI 1.279-2.657); p = 0.001), fever (OR, 0.663 (95% CI 0.454-0.967); p = 0.033), malignancy (OR, 7.095 (95% CI 2.142-23.500); p = 0.001), congestive heart failure (OR, 2.341 (95% CI 1.046-5.239); p = 0.038), appropriate empiric antimicrobial treatment (OR, 0.445 (95% CI 0.216-0.914); p = 0.027), and surgery in the last month (OR, 0.137 (95% CI 0.037-0.499); p = 0.003). Appropriate empiric antimicrobial treatment in VAP due to Acinetobacter spp. was associated with survival while renal injury and comorbid conditions increased mortality. Hence, early diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic therapy remain crucial to improve outcomes.