The relationship between body mass index and stage/grade of periodontitis: a retrospective study
Cetin, Mehtap Bilgin
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Objectives Possible impact of obesity on stage and grade of periodontitis has never been investigated before. This study aimed to examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and stage/grade of periodontitis per the current classification of periodontal diseases. Material and methods A total of 142 patients (82 males/60 females) were included in this study. "2017 World Workshop on the Classification of Periodontal and Peri-Implant Diseases and Conditions" was taken as basis to characterize the stage/grade of periodontitis. Age, gender, smoking status, and frequency of tooth brushing, and medical data of the patients including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, BMI, and diabetes mellitus were obtained from the patient's hospital records. Obesity was assessed by BMI using the "World Health Organization" criteria. For estimating the association between BMI and periodontitis, logistic regression analysis was utilized. Results BMI was statistically associated with clinical attachment loss (CAL), probing pocket depth (PPD), Plaque index (PI), stage and grade of periodontitis, and number of remaining teeth (p < 0.001, p < 0.05, p < 0.05, p < 0.05, p < 0.001, respectively). According to the multiple regression analysis results, those with BMI 25-29.9 were found to be at risk of being stage III-IV 3.977 times (95% CI: 1.831-8.640, p < 0.001) higher than those with BMI < 25, and similarly, those with BMI >= 30 were found to be at risk of being stage III-IV 4.062 times (95% CI: 1.315-12.549, p = 0.015) higher than those with BMI < 25. No relationship was found between obesity and grade of periodontitis according to multivariate analysis. Conclusions BMI increases the likelihood of stage III and stage IV periodontitis; however, it does not have an impact on the grade of periodontitis.