Lichen planopilaris: Demographic, clinical and histopathological characteristics and treatment outcomes of 25 cases
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Background and Design: Lichen planopilaris (LPP) is a type of cicatricial alopecia characterized by autoreactive lymphocytic destruction of the hair follicle. We aimed to evaluate the demographic, clinical and histopathological features, and treatment outcomes of patients with LPP. Materials and Methods: Medical reports of 25 patients, who have been diagnosed with LPP according to the clinical and histopathological findings between January 2006 and June 2012, were retrospectively reviewed. The transverse and vertical sections of scalp biopsy specimens were re-evaluated by a pathologist, and the findings were noted. Results: Of the 25 patients, 18 were female and 7 were male, the mean age was 49.8 +/- 12.4 years. Eighteen patients had been diagnosed with classic LPP and 7 patients with frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA). The alopecia has begun in postmenopausal period in 5 patients with FFA. Alopecia was associated with pruritus, pain and/or burning in 19 patients. Extra-scalp involvement was observed in 11 patients. The most common clinical findings were follicular hyperkeratosis (92%), perifollicular erythema (48%), perifollicular lichenoid papules, and positive hair-pull test (44%). Dermatoscopic examination was performed in 14 patients, and most commonly, absence of follicular openings (100%), perifollicular scales (92.9%) and perifollicular erythema (50%) were noted. The most common diagnostic histopathological findings were follicular vacuolar and lichenoid degeneration (88%) and vacuolar and lichenoid interface changes (56%). Twenty-three patients who were started on treatment received topical, intramuscular and intralesional corticosteroids, topical minoxidil, oral tetracycline, cyclosporine A, and hydroxychloroquine either alone or in combination. Progression of alopecia was prevented and the symptoms and/or signs were reduced in 12 (75%) of 16 patients whose follow-up data were available. Conclusion: LPP can be diagnosed accurately through a detailed clinical examination, dermatoscopy and histopathological examination. The symptoms and/or signs can be reduced and progression of the disease can be prevented with treatment.