The Effect of Three Different Crown Heights and Two Different Bone Types on Implants Placed in the Posterior Maxilla: Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis
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Purose: The purpose of this study was to determine the amount and localization of functional stresses in implants placed in two different bone types (type 3 and type 4) with three different crown heights in the atrophic posterior maxilla using finite element analysis. Materials and Methods: A three-dimensional finite element model of the posterior maxilla was created from a computerized tomography image by using the Marc 2005 (MSC Software) program. Three different crown/implant ratios (1/1, 1.5/1, 2/1) in the first molar tooth zone were modeled. Type 3 and type 4 bone quality according to the classiication system of Lekholm and Zarb was created. The total oblique force of 300 N with a 30-degree angle was applied from the locations of the mesiobuccal cusp (150 N) and the distobuccal cusp (150 N) of first molar teeth. Results: For the implants, the highest stresses were observed around the implant neck at the crown/implant ratio of 2/1 (430.57 MPa). As the crown/implant ratio increased two times, the von Mises stresses increased at a rate of 47%. The highest tensile values exceeded the ultimate tensile strength of the cortical bone for all the designs. Also, the highest compressive values exceeded the ultimate compressive strength of the cortical bone in the 2/1 design for type 3 bone, and in the 1.5/1 and 2/1 designs for type 4 bone. As the crown/implant ratio increased from 1/1 to 2/1, the highest tensile value and the highest compressive value increased 13%. For the spongious bone, as the crown/implant ratio increased, the highest tensile value increased 42% and 85%, respectively. Tensile stresses increased at a rate of 26% in the 1/1 ratio, 30% in the 1.5/1 ratio, and 32% in the 2/1 ratio when the density of spongious bone decreased. Compression-related values also increased 34% in the 1/1 ratio, 35% in the 1.5/1 ratio, and 36% in the 2/1 ratio when the density of spongious bone decreased. Conclusion: Compressive and tensile stresses formed mostly at the alveolar bone around the implant neck that was cortical bone. Thus, it had to be preserved during the surgical procedures. Deformation due to the stresses had great importance for the type IV spongious bone due to the increase caused by the higher crown height levels.