Antituberculosis drug resistance patterns in adults with tuberculous meningitis: results of haydarpasa-iv study
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Background: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to antituberculosis drugs is an increasingly common clinical problem. This study aimed to evaluate drug resistance profiles of TBM isolates in adult patients in nine European countries involving 32 centers to provide insight into the empiric treatment of TBM. Methods: Mycobacterium tuberculosis was cultured from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 142 patients and was tested for susceptibility to first-line antituberculosis drugs, streptomycin (SM), isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RIF) and ethambutol (EMB). Results: Twenty of 142 isolates (14.1 %) were resistant to at least one antituberculosis drug, and five (3.5 %) were resistant to at least INH and RIF, [multidrug resistant (MDR)]. The resistance rate was 12, 4.9, 4.2 and 3.5 % for INH, SM, EMB and RIF, respectively. The monoresistance rate was 6.3, 1.4 and 0.7 % for INH, SM and EMB respectively. There was no monoresistance to RIF. The mortality rate was 23.8 % in fully susceptible cases while it was 33.3 % for those exhibiting monoresistance to INH, and 40 % in cases with MDR-TBM. In compared to patients without resistance to any firstline drug, the relative risk of death for INH-monoresistance and MDR-TBM was 1.60 (95 % CI, 0.38-6.82) and 2.14 (95 % CI, 0: 34-13: 42), respectively. Conclusion: INH-resistance and MDR rates seemed not to be worrisome in our study. However, considering their adverse effects on treatment, rapid detection of resistance to at least INH and RIF would be most beneficial for designing anti-TB therapy. Still, empiric TBM treatment should be started immediately without waiting the drug susceptibility testing.