Low Prevalence of Periodontitis in Acromegaly: Growth Hormone May Exert a Protective Effect
Ertorer, Melek Eda
Tutuncu, Neslihan B.
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Purpose: To evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) measurements and the presence of periodontitis in patients with acromegaly, as well as to inquire the impact of interfering factors. Material and Method: Forty-seven acromegalic patients with any accompanying condition known to affect calcium-bone metabolism and 60 age-matched healthy controls were included. Age, gender, duration and activity of acromegaly, past-present therapy options, pituitary hormone profiles, replacement therapies, and the results of periodontal analysis were recorded. Results: Eighteen patients were male (38.3%), 29 were female (61.7%). The mean age of the patients was 46.6 +/- 11.5 years, twenty-five (53.1%) had active, 22 (46.8%) had inactive acromegaly. The latter were older and had longer disease duration (p=0.04, p=0.003, respectively). Serum calcium and phosphorus levels, 24-hour urinary calcium excretion and BMD at the lumbar spine and femur neck insignificantly associated with disease activity (p>0.05). Osteoporosis was detected in 6 patients (12.76%). Periodontitis and advanced periodontitis were more common in control group (66.7% vs. 44.7%), (43.3% vs. 12.8%) (p=0.022, p=0.0001, respectively). There was no difference in chronic periodontitis and severity between active and inactive groups (48% vs. 40.9%; p=0.279). No difference was noted in other study parameters, as well. Repeated measures analysis of variance demonstrated statistically insignificant distribution between GH change in time and periodontitis subgroups. Discussion: We demonstrated that acromegaly exerted no clear negative impact on vertebral BMD in the absence of overt hypogonadism. Regardless of disease activity, acromegaly cases exhibited lower rates of periodontitis with less severity which remained unchanged in the presence of accompanying metabolic disorders known to have negative impact on periodontal tissue. Chronic exposure to excess GH may have a protective role against periodontitis.