Amifostine enhances the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of UW and HTK preservation solutions
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AIM: To investigate whether amifostine contributes to the antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) and University of Wisconsin (UW) preservation solutions. METHODS: Forty-eight Sprague Dawley male rats were equally divided into six groups: (1) ringer Lactate (RL) group; (2) RL + amifostine (RL + A) group; (3) HTK group; (4) HTK + A group; (5) UW group; and (6) UW + A group. Rats in the RL + A, HTK + A and UW + A groups were administered amifostine intraperitoneally at a dose of 200 mg/kg prior to laparotomy. The RL group was perfused with RL into the portal vein. The RL + A group were perfused with RL into the portal vein after amifostine administration. The HTK group received an HTK perfusion while the HTK + A group received an HTK perfusion after administration of amifostine. The UW group received a perfusion of UW, while the UW + A group received a UW perfusion after amifostine administration. Liver biopsy was performed to investigate histopathological, immunochemical [transferase mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), inducible nitric oxide syntetase (iNOS)] and ultrastructural alterations. Biochemical alterations were determined by examining levels of alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and nitric oxide in the perfusion fluid. RESULTS: Pathological sinusoidal dilatation and centrilobular hydropic alteration were significantly lower in the groups that received amifostine prior to preservation solution perfusion. Although the best results were obtained in the UW + A group, we did not observe a statistically significant difference between the UW + A and HTK + A groups. iNOS grades were significantly lower in the amifostine groups 12 h after treatment. When the amifostine groups were compared against each other, the iNOS grades obtained from the UW + A and HTK + A groups were similar while the RL + A group had a much poorer score. TUNEL assays demonstrated a lower apoptosis ratio in the amifostine groups than in the non-amifostine groups 12 h after treatment. No statistically significant difference was observed between the UW + A and HTK + A groups for apoptosis. Cellular ultrastructure was best preserved in the UW + A and HTK + A groups. CONCLUSION: Here, we show that preoperative administration of a single dose of amifostine is sufficient to minimize the preservation damage in hepatic cells. (C) 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.