Preparation and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of flurbiprofen nanosuspension-based gel for dermal application
Oktay, Ayse Nur
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Flurbiprofen (FB) is an analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug, but its low water solubility (BCS Class II) limits its dermal bioavailability. The aim of this study is to develop a FB nanosuspension (NS) based gel and to evaluate its analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in rats. FB-NS was produced by the wet milling method with Plantacare 2000 (R), as stabilizer. The FB-NS was then incorporated in different carrier gels such as hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), polycarbophil, oleogel, and chitosan. To select the optimum gel type, visual examinations, pH and rheological property measurements, texture profile analysis, in vitro release and ex vivo permeation studies were performed. Following these tests, the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the optimum NS based gel were evaluated using the tail flick and carrageenan-induced paw edema methods consecutively. The NS was successfully prepared with the wet milling method, and the PS, PDI and ZP values were found to be 237.7 +/- 6.8 nm, 0.133 +/- 0.030, and -30.4 +/- 0.7 mV; respectively. Among the NS-based gels, HPMC gel showed more suitable rheological and mechanical properties, also the percentage of permeated FB and the flux value observed for HPMC gel were higher for HPMC than for the other gels. Thus, HPMC gel was selected as a carrier gel for in vivo pharmacodynamics studies. The anti-inflammatory activity of FB-NS HPMC gel was higher than that of the physical mixture gel and that of the coarse suspension gel. Results of our analgesic activity studies showed that, in the 180th min of FB nanosuspension treatment, the latency time was significantly prolonged compared to that of the control group (p<0.05). As a conclusion, while nanosuspensions increased the in vivo pharmacodynamics effect of FB by means of nanosized particles and a large surface area, the HPMC gel as a carrier prolonged the contact time of NSs with skin and eased the dermal application.