Electrospinning of linezolid loaded PLGA nanofibers: effect of solvents on its spinnability, drug delivery, mechanical properties, and antibacterial activities
Eren Boncu, Tugba
Uskudar Guclu, Aylin
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Objective: The choice of a desirable solvent/solvent system is fundamental for optimization of electrospinning by altering the rheological and electrostatic properties of the polymer solutions. Methods: The effects of the solvents and their properties on the viscosity and spinnability of the polymer solutions and the diameter, morphology, in vitro drug release, drug release mechanisms, antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and mechanical properties of electrospun poly-(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanofibers were investigated. Dichloromethane (DCM), dimethylformamide (DMF), various ratios of DCM:DMF, and 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) were used as solvents. Results: Although solutions containing DCM/DMF alone were not spinnable, different ratios of DCM:DMF and HFIP were determined as suitable solvents to produce nanofibers because of high enough conductivity, viscosity, and low enough surface tension of the solutions. The DCM:DMF ratio was highly effective on viscosity, nanofiber diameter, morphology, and linezolid release rate. The viscosity of HFIP containing solution was higher and the obtained nanofibers were thicker and smoother with better mechanical properties. The release of nanofibers containing HFIP at a concentration of 10% w/v PLGA was more prolonged than nanofibers containing DCM:DMF mixture. The effect of linezolid content on nanofibers was also investigated. As the amount of linezolid increased, nanofiber diameter and drug release increased and bead formation was observed. While antibacterial activity with nanofibers for which DCM:DMF was used, lasted for 13 days, it was extended to 16 days in nanofibers for which HFIP was used. Conclusions: Type and ratio of the solvent system affected viscosity and spinnability of the solutions, the average nanofiber diameter, morphology, in vitro activity and mechanical properties of the obtained electrospun nanofibers.