Early Postoperative Acute Kidney Injury Among Pediatric Liver Transplant Recipients
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Objectives: Acute kidney injury after pediatric liver transplant is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Here, we evaluated children with acute kidney injury early posttransplant using KDIGO criteria to determine incidence, risk factors, and clinical outcomes. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, medical records of all patients < 16 years old who underwent liver transplant from April 2007 to April 2017 were reviewed. Results: Of 117 study patients, 69 (59%) were male and median age at transplant was 72 months (range, 12-120 mo). Forty children (34.2%) had postoperative acute kidney injury, with most having stage 1 disease (n = 21). Compared with children who had acute kidney injury versus those who did not, preoperative activated partial thromboplastin time (median 35.6 s [interquartile range, 32.4-42.8 s] vs 42.5 s [interquartile range, 35-49 s]; P = .007), intraoperative lactate levels at end of surgery (median 5.3 mmol/L [interquartile range, 3.3-8.6 mmol/L] vs 7.9 mmol/L [interquartile range, 4.3-11.2 mmol/L]; P = .044), and need for open abdomen (3% vs 15%; P = .024) were significantly higher. Logistic regression analysis revealed that preoperative high activated partial thromboplastin time (P = .02), intraoperative lactate levels at end of surgery (P = .02), and need for open abdomen (P = .03) were independent risk factors for acute kidney injury. Children who developed acute kidney injury had significantly longer intensive care unit stay (7.1 +/- 8.5 vs 4.4 +/- 5.4 days, P = .04) and mortality (12.8% vs 1.8%; P = .01). Conclusions: Early postoperative acute kidney injury occurred in 34.2% of pediatric liver transplant recipients, with patients having increased mortality risk. High preoperative activated partial thromboplastin time, high intraoperative end of surgery lactate levels, and need for open abdomen were shown to be associated with acute kidney injury after pediatric liver transplant.