Obesity and Oxidative Stress in Patients with Different Periodontal Status: A Case-Control Study
Atabay, V. E.
Sakallioglu, E. E.
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Background and ObjectiveObesity has become an important global health concern as obesity-associated adiposity is supposedly related to systemic immunologic and inflammatory alterations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of obesity on periodontally healthy and diseased tissue according to the changes in malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC) and total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) levels in gingival crevicular fluid as biomarkers of oxidative stress (OS). Material and MethodsThe study sample comprised systemically healthy normal-weight (n = 45) and obese (n = 48) adults. Obesity was diagnosed according to body mass index, waist circumference and waist/hip ratio. Periodontal status was evaluated according to plaque index, gingival index, bleeding on probing, probing depth and clinical attachment level. Participants were distributed among six groups according to obesity and periodontal status, as follows: normal weight+periodontally healthy (NH); normal weight+gingivitis (NG); normal weight+generalized chronic periodontitis (NCP); obese+periodontally healthy (OH); obese+gingivitis (OG); and obese+generalized chronic periodontitis (OCP). MDA, PC and TAOC levels were measured using ELISA. ResultsThe MDA and PC levels in gingival crevicular fluid varied among groups, as follows: NCP > NG > NH (p < 0.01) and OCP > OG > OH (p < 0.01). Conversely, the levels of TAOC in gingival crevicular fluid varied as follows: NCP < NG < NH (p < 0.01) and OCP < OG < OH (p < 0.01). Paired comparisons conducted according to periodontal status showed MDA and PC levels to be higher, and TAOC levels to be lower, in the OCP group than in the NCP group, in the OG group than in the NG group and in the OH group than in the NH group. However, only the differences between the OCP and NCP groups were significant (p < 0.01). In both obese and normal-weight individuals, clinical assessments showed significant, positive correlations with MDA and PC levels and negative correlations with TAOC levels (p < 0.01). ConclusionObesity may influence periodontal tissue destruction and disease severity by increasing the level of oxidative stress in the presence of periodontal disease.