Investigation of SOSTDC1 gene in non-syndromic patients with supernumerary teeth
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Background: The etiology of supernumerary teeth is still unclear however heredity is believed to be a major factor and this idea was supported by several case reports. Recently, a relationship between supernumerary tooth formation and deficiency of Uterine Sensitization Associated Gene-1 (Usag-1), a rat gene that is expressed in sensitized endometrium, was reported in mice. The human homolog gene for Usag-1, Sclerostin Domain Containing 1 (SOSTDC1), shows 85% identity with mouse Usag-1. The present study aimed to investigate SOSTDC1 coding regions in non-syndromic patients with one or more supernumerary teeth. Material and Methods: Twenty-five non-syndromic patients (21 male and 4 female) aged 5-15 years, with one or more supernumerary teeth were included in the study. Saliva samples were collected from patients and DNA samples were isolated and analyzed using PCR. Results: Eight phenotypes of supernumerary tooth formation were observed in the study. From the DNA analysis, 2 novel and 3 previously identified sequence alterations were identified however, in investigating the Usag-1 homolog SOSTDC1 gene, the present study could not find any phenotype-genotype relationship. Conclusions: There are many SOSTDC1 homolog genes in the human genome and future studies should investigate these candidate genes. Also studies in larger case groups including family members may reveal the hereditary pattern.